The objective of the WHO FCTC Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products (Protocol) is the elimination of all forms of illicit trade in tobacco products. The Protocol aims to secure the supply chain of tobacco products through a series of government measures. It requires the establishment of a global tracking and tracing regime by September 2023. There were 67 parties to the Protocol by 31 May 2023. 28 Parties to the Protocol are high income, 15 are upper-middle income,14 are lower-middle income and 10 are low income. We estimate that there are thirty-seven existing track and trace systems among Parties: 20 Parties have a system based on the EU regulations, 10 on tax stamp regimes and 7 on other characteristics. Low and middle-income countries struggle with the implementation of the Protocol obligations and the establishment of the tracking and tracing provisions. A global tracking and tracing regime, compromising national and/or regional tracking and tracing systems, might help to secure the supply chain and assist in the investigation of illicit tobacco trade, if enough Parties have a tracking and tracing system, covering all the obligations of the Protocol, based on robust data, without tobacco industry interference, access to the unique identifiers outside the jurisdiction and mutual recognizable data.